This essay addresses relations between science and Chinesephilosophy in several ways. It begins with a detailed argument by theinfluential historian of Chinese philosophy Fung Yu-lan almost onehundred years ago, claiming that there is no science in China becausethere is no need for any. The second section presents an opposingview from the history of science as presented by Joseph Needham andothers, introducing a range of sciences that developed in China, withwhat might be called distinctive Chinese characteristics. Thethird section addresses the particular problem of Needham'srepresentation of Chinese science as significantly Daoist.
The thesis of this essay is that philosophy is at an important crossroads at the end of the twentieth century in its role as philosophy educating humanity. An unprecedented challenge and opportunity for philosophy today is to mediate, and enhance understanding of the relationship, between science, ethics and faith. A central question arises: What can philosophy contribute to the emerging dialogue between science and theology? The emerging science-theology dialogue is characterized by complexity and considerable confusion regarding proper methodologies, goals, and possible interactions. There are at least three major schools, models, or approaches to science-religion interfaces: (1) complete separation: no dialogue; (2) complementarity; and (3) fusion: "theistic science" or even a new natural theology (Gruenwald 1994: 4-14).
immutable relationship between philosophy and science
In this essay we explored some of the themes, results and issues in environmental history. It is far from comprehensive survey but several themes are emerging from the previous pages. A considerable part of environmental history is dealing with our perceptions of nature and the environment, which is an intellectual history of the relationship between humans and nature. To write this kind of history, historians are using literature studies and, even more important, philosophy to reconstruct peoples justifications for transforming nature in the past. The latter part of this essay dealt with the interaction between humans and the physical world. Here historians are using studies from the natural sciences to reconstruct past environments and the modifications of it caused by human activity.