free essay on Pragmatism James and Peirce - ECheat
According to pragmatists, educators have to be on their guard against goals that are universally recognized as ultimate and general. It may be stressed that for the majority of pragmatists, the main goal of education is providing the general conditions that make development inevitable. Pragmatists consider that the whole organism may be presented as the combination of the biological, psychological, and social characteristics. Thus, the pragmatists consider a student as a complex organism permanently interacting with the social environment (Bansal, Maheshvari, & Agarwal, n.d.).
Another French thinker, Georges Sorel, undertook to reformulate James's Pragmatism into a "useful" doctrine of social criticism. Mussolini later cited Sorel and James as two of his philosophic mentors. He claimed to find in James "that faith in action, that ardent will to live and fight, to which Fascism owes a great part of its success." To the democratic James, no lesson could have been more badly learned.
Essay on Pragmatism - 772 Words | Bartleby
An admirer and friend of James, Schiller, now nearly forgotten, was once the most famous Pragmatist in England and Europe. Schiller was initially a humanist in the sense that, for him, both reality and knowledge are reflections of human activity--"the taken" rather than "the given." He first came to appreciate James's "The Will to Believe" in 1897 and subsequently acknowledged its impact on his thinking in an early and important paper, "Axioms As Postulates" (1902). He was a tireless critic of the "closed" systems of Idealism of F.H. Bradley, J.M.E. McTaggart, and Bernard Bosanquet and an advocate of the intellectual freedom that consists in "open," plural, changing, and to some extent never finished philosophical theorizing. According to Schiller, reality and truth are "man-made" rather than eternal verities. The true and the false are basically forms of good and bad and are relative to the private purposes of some particular person. He attempted to describe and analyze the "logic" of the experimental "trying" through which such needs are satisfied. For Schiller, reality is wholly plastic; and, starting out from initial postulates, one proceeds to construct one's schemes for achieving a satisfactory outcome of desire, finally rendering one's unformed possibilities (hyle) into a common world of language and action. On this view, all of science derives from and is inescapably guided by the psychological process of human thought; man is the measure of all things.
Knowledge and Inquiry: Essays on the Pragmatism of …In 1868, C.S. Peirce argued that there is no power of in the sense of a cognition unconditioned by inference, and no power of introspection, intuitive or otherwise, and that awareness of an internal world is by hypothetical inference from external facts. Introspection and intuition were staple philosophical tools at least since Descartes. He argued that there is no absolutely first cognition in a cognitive process; such a process has its beginning but can always be analyzed into finer cognitive stages. That which we call introspection does not give privileged access to knowledge about the mind—the self is a concept that is derived from our interaction with the external world and not the other way around (De Waal 2005, pp. 7–10). At the same time he held persistently that pragmatism and epistemology in general could not be derived from principles of psychology understood as a special science: what we think is too different from what we think; in his "" series, Peirce formulated both pragmatism and principles of statistics as aspects of scientific method in general. This is an important point of disagreement with most other pragmatists, who advocate a more thorough naturalism and psychologism.
Join Now Log in Home Literature Essays Pragmatism and Other Writings The Business of Thought: Financial Language in Emerson ..Peirce lectured and further wrote on pragmatism to make clear his own interpretation. While framing a conception's meaning in terms of conceivable tests, Peirce emphasized that, since a conception is general, its meaning, its intellectual purport, equates to its acceptance's implications for general practice, rather than to any definite set of real effects (or test results); a conception's clarified meaning points toward its conceivable verifications, but the outcomes are not meanings, but individual upshots. Peirce in 1905 coined the new name "for the precise purpose of expressing the original definition", saying that "all went happily" with James's and Schiller's variant uses of the old name "pragmatism" and that he nonetheless coined the new name because of the old name's growing use in "literary journals, where it gets abused". Yet in a 1906 manuscript he cited as causes his differences with James and Schiller. and, in a 1908 publication, his differences with James as well as literary author . Peirce in any case regarded his views that truth is immutable and infinity is real, as being opposed by the other pragmatists, but he remained allied with them on other issues.